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言谈霓虹:你对未来的那些预期,应该是有道理的

2018-11-9 11:03| 发布者: steven| 查看: 3425| 评论: 254

  作者:日本企业(中国)研究院执行院长 陈言

  十九世纪初,蒸汽火车刚在英国投入商业运营时,报纸报道说,火车“像子弹一样飞出去”。其实最早期的火车时速一般也就三四十公里,但当时民众的观感却完全可用“震惊”来形容。

  当物质生活方式的变化经常引起“震惊”时,社会往往已处在一场技术革命进程中。想想看,你用上第一代苹果手机时的那种惊奇感,你听说阿尔法狗完胜人类顶尖棋手时的那一丝恐惧感,你出门后发现身上没带一分钱,条件反射地怔一下,但旋即继续行程时的那种恍惚感……其实你的这些心理状态跟二百年前那些为蒸汽火车而震惊的英国人是一样的。

  那时是第一次工业革命,关键词是“蒸汽机”;现在是第四次工业革命,关键词是“智能”。

  只是,那时的大多数人并不理解蒸汽机的功率是怎么回事,以至于瓦特专门创造了“马力”(horsepower)这个概念。当下的中国人对未来的生活方式抱有一种十分乐观的预期,认为肯定会更便捷、更神奇、更“智能化”,但对于何以如此,何为“智能”,其实也感觉模模糊糊。

  关键词:智能

  9月19日至23日在上海举办的第20届中国国际工业博览会的主题之一就是“智能”,在我看来,这场展会是当今方兴未艾的第四次工业革命的一个演习场,向人们提供了一个深入了解“智能时代”的机会。

  我关注的一家参展日本企业展出的所有单元都冠以“智能”前缀:智能制造、智能物流、智能医药、智能维护、智能产品,显示了一种以智能理念和技术影响社会物质生产全过程的雄心。这就是日本制造业巨头日立。

  日立(中国)有限公司参展本届工业博览会中的“信息与通信技术应用展”,以“智能制造”为主题,重点展示了日立在应用物联网、大数据、人工智能等领域的先进技术,以及日立利用IoT平台Lumada在医疗器械、物流、生产制造、维护、工业设备等领域提供的一系列智能解决方案、产品及服务。

  用机器来规范人的操作

  在现场,日立展区挤满了对智能制造感兴趣的观众。其中,“智能制造”区域集中了最多的观众。

  这里展出的一套名为VSIP的智能制造解决方案,通过图像识别和分析的物联网技术,借助在工厂内安装的360度摄像机,使得工人的工作情况等工厂实际运行数据得以可视化呈现。管理者则可以此为依据,优化工人们的工作流程,将最大程度地改善工厂的生产效率。

  日立(中国)产业系统事业统括本部高级总经理佐佐木一彰告诉我,上述系统目前已应用在中国青岛的一家工厂。佐佐木总经理希望通过中国当地的合作伙伴,将这一在日本已普及的智能制造系统向中国企业推广。

  细看日本企业的智能制造展台,我的一个明显的感觉是,“智能”已经深度渗透进了“日本制造”。比如传感器的使用非常普及——日本企业几乎在生产过程的每个工序都安装了传感器,从控制室的显示屏上就能即时掌握数据,整个制造过程一目了然。日立的展品在这一点上体现得十分鲜明。

  日立的“智能制造”还体现在一种“逆向思维”上,即不仅仅是人控制机器,机器也会规范人的操作。比如系统会观察工位上某位操作员组装的某个构件是否符合规定,如果不合规就给出提醒。如此一来,就可以保证产品组装技术水平的一致性,节省了后续质检的人力和时间。

  全家连锁便利店的背后

  不少中国企业主采购时或许会碰到供应商各自安排运输,导致配送效率低,增加了不必要的运输车次,采购量也达不到使用集装箱的量,没办法通过规模效益降低成本。亦或是想对供应链进行改革,从而削减成本、减少不必要的库存或提高服务水平等,却不知道该从何下手。

  日立的智能物流能有效地改善这类状况。在“智能物流”展区,日立展示了面向制造业的全球智能物流服务及解决方案,推动社会创新的日立IoT平台——Lumada,使得供应链中各环节的库存、管理以及配送可视化。


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