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季节变化早晚温差大 宝宝易患扁桃体炎

2015-9-28 19:19| 发布者: steven| 查看: 18672| 评论: 326|原作者: steven

  最近季节变换,气温变化无常,早晚温差大,南医大二附院耳鼻喉科门诊有很多扁桃体发炎的宝宝来看病,好多家长对扁桃体炎不了解,父母们眼瞅着宝宝不舒服,整日哭闹,也只能束手无策,干着急。很多父母都有这样的疑问:扁桃体为什么会发炎?它又该如何治疗呢?
  南京医科大学第二附属医院耳鼻喉科刘炜主任介绍说,扁桃体是由淋巴组织构成的,可分为咽扁桃体(腺样体)、咽鼓管扁桃体、腭扁桃体和舌桃体,通常所说的扁桃体发炎是指腭扁桃体发炎,它是一对扁卵圆形的淋巴器官,位于口咽部扁桃体窝内。
  由于细菌或者病毒感染都会导致扁桃体发炎,扁桃体发炎分为急性扁桃体炎和慢性扁桃体炎。急性扁桃体炎,起病较急,局部症状主要为剧烈咽痛,同时伴有发热、寒战、全身乏力、头痛及全身痛,食欲不振,恶心和呕吐等全身症状,小儿患者可能因高热引起抽搐、呕吐及昏睡。慢性扁桃体炎引起的扁桃体增生导致扁桃体肥大可能造成睡眠打鼾、呼吸不畅,严重的患儿睡眠时出现呼吸暂停的现象,天长日久会引起慢性缺氧,会使宝宝的生长及智力发育受到影响。
  那得了扁桃体炎该怎么治疗呢?刘主任解释说,急性扁桃体炎主要的治疗方法是使用有效的抗生素,发作时选用有效抗生素治疗一周以上;其次是手术治疗,如果急性扁桃体炎多次反复发作,一年发作4次以上,这时称为病灶性扁桃体炎,可能会引起人体其他器官的并发症,那么就要手术切除了。如果扁桃体严重肿大,影响到孩子的呼吸、吞咽和发音,孩子出现夜间睡眠打鼾甚至憋气现象,那么也要行扁桃体切除术。
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